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casino florida indianer -Die Verbindung von Indianertum und wirtschaftlicher Betätigung erst recht wirtschaftlichem Erfolg galt lange Zeit als nachgerade unmöglich und wird auch heute von der Presse kritisch betrachtet. Schnell folgten weitere Spielhallen. Da diese Dividenden für alle Stammesmitglieder auch Kinder ausgeschüttet werden, kann so eine vierköpfige Familie auf ein Einkommen von knapp Dollar jährlich kommen. Der Touchscreen reagiert nicht oder er agiert, ohne berührt zu werden, diese Fehlfunktion haben manche iPhone- X-Modelle. Sie integrieren damit ein Kollektivbewusstsein in eine adäquate wirtschaftliche Form jenseits des Individualbesitzes. Nun bilanziert Billie bei einem Berlin-Besuch: Hier können Sie die Rechte an diesem Artikel erwerben. Wir hatten ein schönes Zimmer, das Wetter war gut also wollten Die Kämpfe endeten ergebnislos. Der Text enthält möglicherweise von Google bereitgestellte Übersetzungen.
In general, the cultures grew apart and had little contact for a century. The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma , and the Seminole Tribe of Florida and Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida , described below, are federally recognized, independent nations that operate in their own spheres.
Seminole tribes generally follow Christianity, both Protestantism and Roman Catholicism , and their traditional Native religion , which is expressed through the stomp dance and the Green Corn Ceremony held at their ceremonial grounds.
Indigenous peoples have practiced Green Corn rituals for centuries. Contemporary southeastern Native American tribes, such as the Seminole and Muscogee Creek , still practice these ceremonies.
As converted Christian Seminoles established their own churches, they incorporated their traditions and beliefs into a syncretic indigenous-Western practice.
In the s, federal projects in Florida encouraged the tribe's reorganization. They created organizations within tribal governance to promote modernization.
As Christian pastors began preaching on reservations, Green Corn Ceremony attendance decreased. This created tension between religiously traditional Seminole and those who began adopting Christianity.
In the s and s, some tribal members on reservations, such as the Brighton Seminole Indian Reservation in Florida, viewed organized Christianity as a threat to their traditions.
By the s, Seminole communities were concerned about loss of language and tradition. Many tribal members began to revive the observance of traditional Green Corn Dance ceremonies, and some moved away from Christianity observance.
By religious tension between Green Corn Dance attendees and Christians particularly Baptists decreased. Some Seminole families participate in both religions; these practitioners have developed a Christianity that has absorbed some tribal traditions.
In the Department of Interior established the Indian Claims Commission , to consider compensation for tribes that claimed their lands were seized by the federal government during times of conflict.
Tribes seeking settlements had to file claims by August , and both the Oklahoma and Florida Seminoles did so. It had established that, at the time of the Treaty of Moultrie Creek , the Seminole exclusively occupied and used 24 million acres in Florida, which they ceded under the treaty.
Although the Black Seminoles also owned or controlled land that was seized in this cession, they were not acknowledged in the treaty. In the groups struggled on allocation of funds among the Oklahoma and Florida tribes.
Based on early 20th-century population records, at which time most of the people were full-blood, the Seminole Tribe of Oklahoma was to receive three-quarters of the judgment and the Florida peoples one-quarter.
The Miccosukee and allied Traditionals filed suit against the settlement in to refuse the money; they did not want to give up their claim for return of lands in Florida.
The federal government put the settlement in trust until the court cases could be decided. The Oklahoma and Florida tribes entered negotiations, which was their first sustained contact in the more than a century since removal.
In the settlement was awarded: From —, he led as chief of the Seminole who supported the Union and fought in the Indian Brigade.
The split among the Seminole lasted until After the war, the United States government negotiated only with the loyal Seminole, requiring the tribe to make a new peace treaty to cover those who allied with the Confederacy, to emancipate the slaves , and to extend tribal citizenship to those freedmen who chose to stay in Seminole territory.
The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma now has about 16, enrolled members, who are divided into a total of fourteen bands; for the Seminole members, these are similar to tribal clans.
The Seminole have a society based on a matrilineal kinship system of descent and inheritance: To the end of the nineteenth century, they spoke mostly Mikasuki and Creek.
Two of the fourteen are "Freedmen Bands," composed of members descended from Black Seminoles, who were legally freed by the US and tribal nations after the Civil War.
They have a tradition of extended patriarchal families in close communities. While the elite interacted with the Seminole, most of the Freedmen were involved most closely with other Freedmen.
They maintained their own culture, religion and social relationships. At the turn of the 20th century, they still spoke mostly Afro-Seminole Creole , a language developed in Florida related to other African-based Creole languages.
The Nation is ruled by an elected council, with two members from each of the fourteen bands, including the Freedmen's bands.
The capital is at Wewoka, Oklahoma. The Seminole Nation of Oklahoma has had tribal citizenship disputes related to the Seminole Freedmen, both in terms of their sharing in a judgment trust awarded in settlement of a land claim suit, and their membership in the Nation.
The remaining few hundred Seminoles survived in the Florida swamplands, avoiding removal. They lived in the Everglades, to isolate themselves from European-Americans.
Seminoles continued their distinctive life, such as "clan-based matrilocal residence in scattered thatched-roof chickee camps.
In the 20th century before World War II, the Seminole in Florida divided into two groups; those who were more traditional and those willing to adapt to the reservations.
Those who accepted reservation lands and made adaptations achieved federal recognition in as the Seminole Tribe of Florida.
Those who had kept to traditional ways and spoke the Mikasuki language organized as the Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida , gaining state recognition in and federal recognition in See also Miccosukee Tribe of Indians of Florida , below.
With federal recognition, they gained reservation lands and worked out a separate arrangement with the state for control of extensive wetlands.
Other Seminoles not affiliated with either of the federally recognized groups are known as Traditional or Independent Seminoles. At the time the tribes were recognized, in and , respectively, they entered into agreements with the US government confirming their sovereignty over tribal lands.
The Seminole worked to adapt, but they were highly affected by the rapidly changing American environment. Natural disasters magnified changes from the governmental drainage project of the Everglades.
Residential, agricultural and business development changed the "natural, social, political, and economic environment" of the Seminole.
The US government had purchased lands and put them in trust for Seminole use. Some feared that if they moved onto reservations, they would be forced to move to Oklahoma.
Others accepted the move in hopes of stability, jobs promised by the Indian New Deal, or as new converts to Christianity. Beginning in the s, however, more Seminoles began to move to the reservations.
A major catalyst for this was the conversion of many Seminole to Christianity, following missionary effort spearheaded by the Creek Baptist evangelist Stanley Smith.
For the new converts, relocating to the reservations afforded them the opportunity to establish their own churches, where they adapted traditions to incorporate into their style of Christianity.
They control several reservations: A traditional group who became known as the Trail Indians moved their camps closer to the Tamiami Trail connecting Tampa and Miami, where they could sell crafts to travelers.
They felt disfranchised by the move of the Seminole to reservations, who they felt were adapting too many European-American ways. Their differences were exacerbated in when some reservation Seminoles filed a land claim suit against the federal government for seizure of lands in the 19th century, an action not supported by the Trail Indians.
Following federal recognition of the Seminole Tribe of Florida in , the Trail Indians decided to organize a separate government.
They sought recognition as the Miccosukee Tribe, as they spoke the Mikasuki language. They received federal recognition in , and received their own reservation lands, collectively known as the Miccosukee Indian Reservation.
An additional 15, people identified as Seminole in combination with some other tribal affiliation or race. The Seminole in Florida have been engaged in stock raising since the mids, when they received cattle from western Native Americans.
The Bureau of Indian Affairs BIA hoped that the cattle raising would teach Seminoles to become citizens by adapting to agricultural settlements.
The BIA also hoped that this program would lead to Seminole self-sufficiency. Cattle owners realized that by using their cattle as equity, they could engage in "new capital-intensive pursuits", such as housing.
Since then, the two Florida tribes have developed economies based chiefly on sales of duty-free tobacco, heritage and resort tourism, and gambling.
They had previously licensed it for several of their casinos. From beginnings in the s during the Great Depression , the Seminole Tribe of Florida today owns "one of the largest cattle operations in Florida, and the 12th largest in the nation.
Florida experienced a population boom in the early 20th century when the Flagler railroad to Miami was completed. The state became a growing destination for tourists and many resort towns were developed.
By the s, many Seminoles were involved in service jobs. In addition, they were able to market their culture  by selling traditional craft products made mostly by women and by exhibitions of traditional skills, such as wrestling alligators by men.
Some of the crafts included woodcarving, basket weaving, beadworking, patchworking, and palmetto-doll making. These crafts are still practiced today.
Fewer Seminole rely on crafts for income because gaming has become so lucrative. At the "Indian Village", Miccosukee demonstrate traditional, pre-contact lifestyles to educate people about their culture.
Since its establishment, gaming has become an important source of revenue for tribal governments. Tribal gaming has provided secure employment, and the revenues have supported higher education, health insurance, services for the elderly, and personal income.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Seminole disambiguation. Seminole Nation of Oklahoma. Seminole Tribe of Florida.
Indigenous peoples of North America portal. Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. Retrieved 21 June University of Nebraska Press, pp.
Osceola and the Great Seminole War. Archived from the original on Abstract on-line at "Archived copy". Archived copy as title link.
The Seminoles of Florida , Gainesville, Florida: University Press of Florida. Atlas of the North American Indian 3, illustrated ed.
Retrieved April 24, Afro-Seminole Creole Mikasuki language Muscogee language. List of chiefs Oklahoma Tax Commission v. De olika indianreservaten satte upp sina egna regler där öppettiderna var mer generösa än i delstaten i övrigt.
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