Cricket english

cricket english

Es kann zwar auch "nicht fair" heißen, bezieht sich aber hauptsächlich auf nicht korrektes Verhalten, wie das Anzweifeln einer Entscheidung des Schiedsrichters . Translation for 'cricket' in the free English-German dictionary and many other German translations. Cricket (engl. [ˈkɹɪkɪt]; in Deutschland amtlich Kricket, in den Anfängen auch „ Thorball“) ist Dies ist auch laut dem Oxford English Dictionary der erste gültige Nachweis des Wortes Cricket in der Englischen Sprache. Während des Your e-mail address optional. OK, Cricket got to us. I assume this means he has scored Subtitles for movies and TV series. These examples may contain wm russland 2019 words based on your search. The Glam Life Slots - Free to Play Online Casino Game cricket, for a long time in India was always organized. Thank you for your feedback! A process according to claim 1 in which 888 casino tricks cricket batbaseball bat or golf club head has an SG of from 0. Bitte immer nur genau cricket english Deutsch-Englisch-Übersetzung eintragen Formatierung siehe Guidelinesmöglichst mit einem guten Beleg im Kommentarfeld. Get help from other users in our forums. Orthographically similar words crickedpricketricketsrickety kricket. Cricket got a message to him.

Batsmen take turns to bat via a batting order which is decided beforehand by the team captain and presented to the umpires, though the order remains flexible when the captain officially nominates the team.

A skilled batsman can use a wide array of "shots" or "strokes" in both defensive and attacking mode.

The idea is to hit the ball to best effect with the flat surface of the bat's blade. If the ball touches the side of the bat it is called an " edge ".

The batsman does not have to play a shot and can allow the ball to go through to the wicketkeeper. Equally, he does not have to attempt a run when he hits the ball with his bat.

Batsmen do not always seek to hit the ball as hard as possible, and a good player can score runs just by making a deft stroke with a turn of the wrists or by simply "blocking" the ball but directing it away from fielders so that he has time to take a run.

A wide variety of shots are played, the batsman's repertoire including strokes named according to the style of swing and the direction aimed: The batsman on strike i.

To register a run, both runners must touch the ground behind the popping crease with either their bats or their bodies the batsmen carry their bats as they run.

Each completed run increments the score of both the team and the striker. The decision to attempt a run is ideally made by the batsman who has the better view of the ball's progress, and this is communicated by calling: More than one run can be scored from a single hit: In these cases the batsmen do not need to run.

If an odd number of runs is scored by the striker, the two batsmen have changed ends, and the one who was non-striker is now the striker.

Only the striker can score individual runs, but all runs are added to the team's total. Additional runs can be gained by the batting team as extras called "sundries" in Australia due to errors made by the fielding side.

This is achieved in four ways: Women's cricket was first recorded in Surrey in It was founded as the Imperial Cricket Conference in by representatives from England, Australia and South Africa, renamed the International Cricket Conference in , and took up its current name in It also appoints the umpires and referees that officiate at all sanctioned Test matches, Limited Overs Internationals and Twenty20 Internationals.

Each member nation has a national cricket board which regulates cricket matches played in its country, selects the national squad, and organises home and away tours for the national team.

The table below lists the ICC full members and their national cricket boards: Cricket is a multi-faceted sport with multiple formats that can effectively be divided into first-class cricket , limited overs cricket and, historically, single wicket cricket.

The highest standard is Test cricket always written with a capital "T" which is in effect the international version of first-class cricket and is restricted to teams representing the twelve countries that are full members of the ICC see above.

Although the term "Test match" was not coined until much later, Test cricket is deemed to have begun with two matches between Australia and England in the —77 Australian season ; since , most Test series between England and Australia have been played for a trophy known as The Ashes.

The term "first-class", in general usage, is applied to top-level domestic cricket. Test matches are played over five days and first-class over three to four days; in all of these matches, the teams are allotted two innings each and the draw is a valid result.

Limited overs cricket is always scheduled for completion in a single day. There are two types: List A which normally allows fifty overs per team; and Twenty20 in which the teams have twenty overs each.

List A was introduced in England in the season as a knockout cup contested by the first-class county clubs. In , a national league competition was established.

The concept was gradually introduced to the other leading cricket countries and the first limited overs international was played in In , the first Cricket World Cup took place in England.

Twenty20 is a new variant of limited overs itself with the purpose being to complete the match within about three hours, usually in an evening session.

The first Twenty20 World Championship was held in Limited overs matches cannot be drawn, although a tie is possible and an unfinished match is a "no result".

Single wicket was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries and its matches were generally considered top-class. In this form, although each team may have from one to six players, there is only one batsman in at a time and he must face every delivery bowled while his innings lasts.

Single wicket has rarely been played since limited overs cricket began. Matches tended to have two innings per team like a full first-class one and they could end in a draw.

Most international matches are played as parts of 'tours', when one nation travels to another for a number of weeks or months, and plays a number of matches of various sorts against the host nation.

Sometimes a perpetual trophy is awarded to the winner of the Test series, the most famous of which is The Ashes. A league competition for Test matches played as part of normal tours, the ICC World Test Championship , has been proposed several times, and is currently planned to begin in First-class cricket in England is played for the most part by the 18 county clubs which contest the County Championship.

The concept of a champion county has existed since the 18th century but the official competition was not established until Australia established its national first-class championship in —93 when the Sheffield Shield was introduced.

In Australia, the first-class teams represent the various states. The world's earliest known cricket match was a village cricket meeting in Kent which has been deduced from a court case recording a "cricketing" of "the Weald and the Upland" versus "the Chalk Hill" at Chevening "about thirty years since" i.

Inter-parish contests became popular in the first half of the 17th century and continued to develop through the 18th with the first local leagues being founded in the second half of the 19th.

At the grassroots level, local club cricket is essentially an amateur pastime for those involved but still usually involves teams playing in competitions at weekends or in the evening.

Schools cricket , first known in southern England in the 17th century, has a similar scenario and both are widely played in the countries where cricket is popular.

Cricket has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the Commonwealth of Nations and elsewhere. It has, for example, influenced the lexicon of these nations, especially the English language, with various phrases such as "that's not cricket" that's unfair , "had a good innings " lived a long life and " sticky wicket ".

It originated as a term for difficult batting conditions in cricket, caused by a damp and soft pitch. James , is often named the best book on any sport ever written.

In the visual arts, notable cricket paintings include Albert Chevallier Tayler 's Kent vs Lancashire at Canterbury and Russell Drysdale 's The Cricketers , which has been called "possibly the most famous Australian painting of the 20th century.

Cricket has close historical ties with Australian rules football and many players have competed at top levels in both sports.

The Melbourne Football Club was founded the following year, and Wills and three other members codified the first laws of the game. In England, a number of association football clubs owe their origins to cricketers who sought to play football as a means of keeping fit during the winter months.

Derby County was founded as a branch of the Derbyshire County Cricket Club in ; [] Aston Villa and Everton were both founded by members of church cricket teams.

In the late 19th century, a former cricketer, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , New York, was credited with devising the baseball box score [] which he adapted from the cricket scorecard for reporting game events.

The first box score appeared in an issue of the Clipper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sport. For the insect, see Cricket insect.

For other uses, see Cricket disambiguation. For other uses, see Cricketer disambiguation. History of cricket to History of cricket — History of cricket to Cricket field , Cricket pitch , Crease cricket , and Wicket.

Innings and Result cricket. Cricket bat and Cricket ball. Two different types of cricket balls , both of the same size: Red balls are used in Test cricket and first-class cricket and some other forms of cricket right.

Cricket clothing and equipment. Umpire cricket , Scoring cricket , and Cricket statistics. Bowling cricket and Dismissal cricket.

Batting cricket , Run cricket , and Extra cricket. List of current first-class cricket teams. List of domestic Twenty20 cricket competitions.

Village cricket , Club cricket , and Schools cricket. Cricket in fiction , Cricket in film and television , and Cricket poetry.

Many amateurs in first-class cricket were full-time players during the cricket season. Some of the game's greatest players, including W. Grace , held amateur status.

The Sports Historian, No. The British Society of Sports History. Archived from the original PDF on 27 November Retrieved 2 May A Weekly Record of the Game.

Retrieved 8 September Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, th edition ed. Retrieved 3 July The Golden Age of Cricket: The first Australian team". National Museum of Australia.

Retrieved 30 December Events That Shaped Australia. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack online. Retrieved 2 July Sport and Politics in South Africa.

Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 7 July Lords the Home of Cricket. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 10 Sep Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 8 July Playfair Cricket Annual 70th edition ed.

Keller; Astrid Lohöfer Bi-directionality in the Cognitive Sciences: Avenues, Challenges, and Limitations. From Aloha to Zed. Enough to leave you stumped" , The Telegraph.

Retrieved 12 March James and the Struggle for a New Society. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 11 June Dawn of a New World". Bletchley Park Post Office.

A Game of Our Own: The Origins of Australian Football. His Spectacular Rise and Tragic Fall. The History of Australian Rules Football.

Author of the first rule-book Chairman of rules committee in first nationwide baseball organization. Computer technology has deepened fans' passion with the game's statistics.

Memories and Dreams Vol. National Baseball Hall of Fame official magazine. Retrieved March 8, The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, A History of Cricket, Volume 1 to At the Sign of the Wicket: Barclays World of Cricket.

A Social History of English Cricket. A History of its Growth and Development. The Rough Guide to English Football — A History of Australian Cricket.

More Than A Game. Sussex Cricket in the Eighteenth Century. Nyren, John [First published ]. The Cricketers of my Time.

The Phoenix History of Cricket. Find more about Cricket at Wikipedia's sister projects. Indoor cricket Indoor cricket UK variant.

Cricket at multi-sport events. Sport Governing bodies Sportspeople National sport. American football eight-man flag nine-man six-man sprint touch wheelchair Canadian football Indoor American football Arena football.

Then another player becomes the bowler for the next over, and bowls from the other end, and so on. The same bowler cannot bowl two overs one after the other.

The batsman is trying to defend the wicket from getting hit with the ball. He does this with a bat. When he hits the ball with his bat, he may run toward the other wicket.

To score a run, the two batsmen must both run from their wicket to the other wicket, as many times as they can, before they can be run out.

Being run out is explained below. If the ball leaves the field after being hit without bouncing, six runs are scored. If the ball rolls or bounces out, whether or not the batter hit it, it counts as four runs.

The way this rule is applied is complicated; this is just the general idea. If the batsmen cannot finish the run in time, and the ball hits the wicket, the batsman nearer to the wicket that is hit is out: When a batsman is out, another comes onto the field to take his place.

The innings is over when ten wickets are taken i. After this, the team which was the 'fielding' team becomes the 'batting' team.

They now have to score more runs than the other team managed to score. If they score more runs before ten wickets are taken, they win.

If they do not, the other team wins. In a one-day game, each side has one innings, and innings are limited to a certain number of overs.

In longer formats each side has two innings, and there is no specific limit to the number of overs in an innings.

Cricket is popular in many countries, mostly in Commonwealth countries. The countries where cricket is most popular compete in international matches games between countries that last up to 5 days, which are called Test matches.

The West Indies are a group of Caribbean countries that play together as a team. Several other countries have more junior status.

The test match idea was invented by teams from England and Australia in the 19th century. Ireland and Afghanistan are the new teams which can play Test cricket.

Cricket is also played in Kenya , Canada , Bermuda , Scotland , Holland and Namibia; the national teams of those countries can play one-day international matches, but do not play test matches.

Pakistan is not able to play international cricket at home at present for security reasons. A cricket field is where cricket is played.

It is circular or oval -shaped grassy ground. There are no fixed dimensions for the field. Test matches are the top international matches played between countries.

The countries permitted to play test matches are accredited by the ICC: The twelve countries are listed below, with 'West Indies','England', 'Ireland' counting for this purpose as a country.

Tests last for up to five days:

Cricket english -

I assume this means he has scored Denn Cricket war in Indien eigentlich immer organisiert. Cricket in anderen Sprachen: What is your feedback about? Kricket neuter Neutrum n engl. Der Schiedsrichter streckt dann beide Arme nach oben. Use your mouse to swing the cricket bat , defend your wicket from the on coming balls and hit as many runs as you can. Example sentences from external sources for "cricket" not checked by the Langenscheidt editorial team. Gelingt dem Bowler ein Wicket bei drei aufeinander folgenden Würfen, so spricht man von einem Hattrick. You can search the forum without needing to register. Als Test oder Test Cricket bezeichnet man eine spezielle Form eines internationalen Cricketspiels die traditionell als höchste Form der Ausübung des Sports gilt. Gryllus campestris field cricket http: Einige haben offensichtliche Fehler, wie Ersetzen eines Kricketschlägers für einen Baseballschläger in den Händen des jungen Schauspielers, der unpassend geschwungen wurde. Kricket Fairness, faires Verhalten, sportlicher Anstand. Penalties werden jeweils in Blöcken von fünf Runs vergeben. Because cricket, for a long time in India was always organized. Heute gibt es zwölf Verbände, die als Vollmitglieder des International Cricket Councils anerkannt sind und in dessen Ländern Cricket eine hohe Aufmerksamkeit erfährt, da es die Nationalmannschaften dieser Verbände sind, die an den wichtigsten Wettbewerben des Sports teilnehmen und jeweils Profiligen unterhalten. Bitte hilf auch bei der Prüfung anderer Übersetzungsvorschläge mit! Adelige und reiche Kaufleute begannen ihre eigenen Mannschaften select XIs aufzustellen. Cricket old boy, always cool in the crisis. Nachdem der australische Schiedsrichter Darrell Hair valerenga if hatte, Pakistan hätte den Ball manipuliert, weigerte sich die pakistanische Mannschaft nach einer Pause wieder das Spielfeld zu betreten. About Juegos de Casino | Bono de $ 400 | Casino.com Chile contextual dictionary Download the App Contact Legal considerations. Cricket wird in Deutschland offiziell vom Deutschen Cricket Bund e. Auf nationaler Ebene wird Cricket seit dieser Zeit in Ligabetrieben professionell betrieben.

Cricket English Video

Top 10 Funny English Interview of Cricket Players ●► Cricket Genius Cricket at multi-sport events. Test matches are played over five Beste Spielothek in Friedrichsfelde finden and first-class over three to four days; in all new online casino no deposit bonus 2019 these matches, the teams are allotted two innings each and the draw is a valid result. In the best casino slots app cheats 19th century, a former cricketer, English-born Henry Chadwick of BrooklynNew York, was credited with devising the baseball box score [] which he adapted from the cricket scorecard for reporting game events. Online casino in kenya a two innings match, the target is the sum of the first- and second-innings scores. Umpire cricketScoring cricketand Cricket statistics. Casino en san juan delos lagos jalisco game's governing body is the International Cricket Council ICCwhich has over members, twelve of which are full members who play Test matches. Unfair bowling The bowling of fast short pitched balls and of high full pitched balls is dangerous and is also considered unfair. Winning a huuuge casino echtgeld gains a team considerably more points than drawing it, so captains are often willing to risk giving the opposition an opportunity to win that they otherwise would not have had as long as they are getting a similar opportunity in return. The first team to bat sets a target score for the second team, which chases the target when it comes to bat. The batsman may not be dismissed from the delivery, online casino in kenya must be repeated. It Beste Spielothek in Brink finden generally believed that cricket originated as a children's game in the lotto 6 aus 49 jackpot gewinner counties of England, sometime during the medieval period.

english cricket -

Cricket wird generell in nationales und internationales Cricket geteilt, bei der heute drei unterschiedliche Spielweisen dominieren. That's hardly cricket - Das ist unfair. Ich hätte niemals gedacht, dass ich so viel über die Regeln von Kricket lernen würde. Context sentences Context sentences for "cricket" in German These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. I want to be informed about the update. Context sentences Context sentences for "cricket" in German These sentences come from external sources and may not be accurate. Amnirana nicobariensis, Rana nicobariensis]. Auflage steht s…. Two of the players are batsmen and the rest are all eleven members of the fielding team. In each innings, the bowling team online casino in kenya to limit heroes spiel runs scored by the batting team and to get the opposition players outan event which is described as 'taking a wicket'. Umpire cricketScoring cricketand Cricket statistics. In addition to these 10 methods, a batsman may retire out. The bowling crease not numbered is the one on which the wicket is located between the return creases Retrieved 18 Tennis olympia live A cricket ball is between fratangelo Winning a game Beste Spielothek in Binnig finden a team considerably more points than drawing it, so captains are often willing to risk cricket english the opposition an opportunity to win that they otherwise would not have had as long as they are getting a similar opportunity in return. Some acts that may alter the casino roulette comment jouer are permitted. There are ten ways in which bundesliga vfb stuttgart batsman can be dismissed: Byes and leg-byes are credited to the team's but not the batsman's total. There are also specified lengths for the barrel and spigots of the bail. Older balls tend to spin more as the roughness grips the pitch more when the ball bounces, so spin bowlers prefer to use a worn ball. Practice on a day of a match on any other part of the cricket square is only permitted before the start of play or after the close of play on that day, but must cease 30 minutes before the scheduled start of play or if it is detrimental to the surface of the square.

Twenty20 is a new variant of limited overs itself with the purpose being to complete the match within about three hours, usually in an evening session.

The first Twenty20 World Championship was held in Limited overs matches cannot be drawn, although a tie is possible and an unfinished match is a "no result".

Single wicket was popular in the 18th and 19th centuries and its matches were generally considered top-class. In this form, although each team may have from one to six players, there is only one batsman in at a time and he must face every delivery bowled while his innings lasts.

Single wicket has rarely been played since limited overs cricket began. Matches tended to have two innings per team like a full first-class one and they could end in a draw.

Most international matches are played as parts of 'tours', when one nation travels to another for a number of weeks or months, and plays a number of matches of various sorts against the host nation.

Sometimes a perpetual trophy is awarded to the winner of the Test series, the most famous of which is The Ashes. A league competition for Test matches played as part of normal tours, the ICC World Test Championship , has been proposed several times, and is currently planned to begin in First-class cricket in England is played for the most part by the 18 county clubs which contest the County Championship.

The concept of a champion county has existed since the 18th century but the official competition was not established until Australia established its national first-class championship in —93 when the Sheffield Shield was introduced.

In Australia, the first-class teams represent the various states. The world's earliest known cricket match was a village cricket meeting in Kent which has been deduced from a court case recording a "cricketing" of "the Weald and the Upland" versus "the Chalk Hill" at Chevening "about thirty years since" i.

Inter-parish contests became popular in the first half of the 17th century and continued to develop through the 18th with the first local leagues being founded in the second half of the 19th.

At the grassroots level, local club cricket is essentially an amateur pastime for those involved but still usually involves teams playing in competitions at weekends or in the evening.

Schools cricket , first known in southern England in the 17th century, has a similar scenario and both are widely played in the countries where cricket is popular.

Cricket has had a broad impact on popular culture, both in the Commonwealth of Nations and elsewhere.

It has, for example, influenced the lexicon of these nations, especially the English language, with various phrases such as "that's not cricket" that's unfair , "had a good innings " lived a long life and " sticky wicket ".

It originated as a term for difficult batting conditions in cricket, caused by a damp and soft pitch.

James , is often named the best book on any sport ever written. In the visual arts, notable cricket paintings include Albert Chevallier Tayler 's Kent vs Lancashire at Canterbury and Russell Drysdale 's The Cricketers , which has been called "possibly the most famous Australian painting of the 20th century.

Cricket has close historical ties with Australian rules football and many players have competed at top levels in both sports.

The Melbourne Football Club was founded the following year, and Wills and three other members codified the first laws of the game.

In England, a number of association football clubs owe their origins to cricketers who sought to play football as a means of keeping fit during the winter months.

Derby County was founded as a branch of the Derbyshire County Cricket Club in ; [] Aston Villa and Everton were both founded by members of church cricket teams.

In the late 19th century, a former cricketer, English-born Henry Chadwick of Brooklyn , New York, was credited with devising the baseball box score [] which he adapted from the cricket scorecard for reporting game events.

The first box score appeared in an issue of the Clipper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the sport. For the insect, see Cricket insect.

For other uses, see Cricket disambiguation. For other uses, see Cricketer disambiguation. History of cricket to History of cricket — History of cricket to Cricket field , Cricket pitch , Crease cricket , and Wicket.

Innings and Result cricket. Cricket bat and Cricket ball. Two different types of cricket balls , both of the same size: Red balls are used in Test cricket and first-class cricket and some other forms of cricket right.

Cricket clothing and equipment. Umpire cricket , Scoring cricket , and Cricket statistics. Bowling cricket and Dismissal cricket.

Batting cricket , Run cricket , and Extra cricket. List of current first-class cricket teams. List of domestic Twenty20 cricket competitions.

Village cricket , Club cricket , and Schools cricket. Cricket in fiction , Cricket in film and television , and Cricket poetry.

Many amateurs in first-class cricket were full-time players during the cricket season. Some of the game's greatest players, including W.

Grace , held amateur status. The Sports Historian, No. The British Society of Sports History. Archived from the original PDF on 27 November Retrieved 2 May A Weekly Record of the Game.

Retrieved 8 September Wisden Cricketers' Almanack, th edition ed. Retrieved 3 July The Golden Age of Cricket: The first Australian team". National Museum of Australia.

Retrieved 30 December Events That Shaped Australia. Wisden Cricketers' Almanack online. Retrieved 2 July Sport and Politics in South Africa.

Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 1 July Retrieved 7 July Lords the Home of Cricket. Retrieved 4 May Retrieved 10 Sep Retrieved 23 June Retrieved 6 July Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 9 February Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 8 July Playfair Cricket Annual 70th edition ed.

Keller; Astrid Lohöfer Bi-directionality in the Cognitive Sciences: Avenues, Challenges, and Limitations. From Aloha to Zed.

Enough to leave you stumped" , The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 March James and the Struggle for a New Society. Retrieved 31 August Retrieved 11 June Dawn of a New World".

Bletchley Park Post Office. A Game of Our Own: The Origins of Australian Football. His Spectacular Rise and Tragic Fall. The History of Australian Rules Football.

Author of the first rule-book Chairman of rules committee in first nationwide baseball organization. Computer technology has deepened fans' passion with the game's statistics.

Memories and Dreams Vol. National Baseball Hall of Fame official magazine. Retrieved March 8, The New York Times. Retrieved November 8, The West Indies are a group of Caribbean countries that play together as a team.

Several other countries have more junior status. The test match idea was invented by teams from England and Australia in the 19th century. Ireland and Afghanistan are the new teams which can play Test cricket.

Cricket is also played in Kenya , Canada , Bermuda , Scotland , Holland and Namibia; the national teams of those countries can play one-day international matches, but do not play test matches.

Pakistan is not able to play international cricket at home at present for security reasons. A cricket field is where cricket is played. It is circular or oval -shaped grassy ground.

There are no fixed dimensions for the field. Test matches are the top international matches played between countries.

The countries permitted to play test matches are accredited by the ICC: The twelve countries are listed below, with 'West Indies','England', 'Ireland' counting for this purpose as a country.

Tests last for up to five days: Called counties in England, and states in Australia and islands in the West Indies. These are three or four day matches.

In these games, the length is determined by the number of overs, and each side has one innings only. A special formula, known as the 'Duckworth—Lewis method' is applied if rain reduces the time for play.

It calculates the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs match interrupted by weather or other circumstance. ODIs are usually restricted to 50 overs batting for each side.

The highest team score is England against Australia in June 19, Twenty20 cricket has 20 overs for each side. In cricket there are two special kinds of average , used to measure how good a player is:.

The bails are used to determine when the wicket is broken. A match is divided into innings , during which one team bats while the other team bowls and fields.

In each innings, the bowling team tries to limit the runs scored by the batting team and to get the opposition players out , an event which is described as 'taking a wicket'.

The batting team keeps two batsmen on the field. Each player bats until he is out, and then is replaced and does not bat again in that innings.

Once ten of the eleven players of the batting team have been dismissed i. A team's innings may also be declared closed by the batting team's captain.

Matches may be played over one or two innings — that is, one or two turns at bat for each team, so that a "two innings match" contains four innings in total.

For most one innings matches such as one-day matches, each team's innings is limited to a set number of overs.

An over is a set of six legal fair deliveries or balls. This type of match is often called limited-overs cricket. The first team to bat sets a target score for the second team, which chases the target when it comes to bat.

In a two innings match, the target is the sum of the first- and second-innings scores. Matches usually end in one of these ways:. The laws of cricket are a set of rules framed by the Marylebone Cricket Club which serve to standardise the format of cricket matches across the world to ensure uniformity and fairness.

Similarly, each cricketing country has implemented Playing Conditions to govern domestic cricket. The Laws are organised into a Preface, a Preamble, forty-two Laws, and four appendices.

The Preamble is a new addition and is related to "the Spirit of the Game;" it was introduced to discourage the increasing practices of ungentlemanly conduct.

The Laws themselves deal with the following:. After dealing with the players, the laws move on to discuss equipment and pitch specifications, except for specifications about the wicket-keeper's gloves, which are dealt with in Law These laws are supplemented by Appendices A and B see below.

During the match the pitch may be rolled at the request of the captain of the batting side, for a period of not more than 7 minutes, before the start of each innings, other than the first innings of the match, and before the start of each subsequent day's play.

In addition, if, after the toss and before the first innings of the match, the start is delayed, the captain of the batting side may request to have the pitch rolled for not more than 7 minutes, unless the umpires together agree that the delay has had no significant effect on the state of the pitch.

Once the game has begun, rolling may not take place other than under these circumstances. If there is more than one roller available the captain of the batting side shall have the choice.

There are detailed rules to make sure that rolling, where possible, is conducted so as not to delay the game, but, if necessary, the game is delayed to allow the batting captain to have up to 7 minutes rolling if he so wishes.

Before a pitch is rolled it is first swept to avoid any possible damage by rolling in debris. The pitch is also cleared of any debris at all intervals for meals, between innings and at the beginning of each day.

The only exception to this is that the umpires do not allow sweeping to take place where they consider it may be detrimental to the surface of the pitch.

Both the pitch and the outfield is mown on each day of a match on which play is expected to take place, if ground and weather conditions allow.

Once a game has begun mowings are carried out under the supervision of the umpires. The umpires are required to make sure that bowlers' and batsmen's footholes are cleaned out and dried whenever necessary to facilitate play.

In matches of more than one day's duration, if necessary, the footholes made by the bowler in his delivery stride may be returfed or covered with quick-setting fillings to make them safe and secure.

Players may also secure their footholds using sawdust provided that the pitch is not damaged or they do not do so in a way that is unfair to the other team.

Law 10 also provides that the pitch is not watered during the match and that the creases are re-marked whenever either umpire considers it necessary.

However, if Team B scores substantially fewer runs than Team A in its first innings, Team A's captain may force Team B to bat again to 'follow-on' straight away, so that the order of the innings is: A, B, B, and, if necessary, A again.

In its second innings, Team B is then said to be 'following-on'. The captain of the batting side may declare an innings closed, when the ball is dead , at any time during a match.

Usually this is because the captain thinks his team has already scored enough runs to win the match, though tactical declarations are sometimes used in other circumstances.

Under the current Laws, a captain may forfeit either of his side's innings. A forfeited innings shall be considered as a completed innings.

Usually this happens in shorter competitive two-innings matches, where captains need to agree with each other how to set up the match so that there is a reasonable chance of a result.

Winning a game gains a team considerably more points than drawing it, so captains are often willing to risk giving the opposition an opportunity to win that they otherwise would not have had as long as they are getting a similar opportunity in return.

Typically players do practise on the field of play, but not on the cricket square, during the game. Also bowlers sometimes practise run ups during the game.

However, no practice or trial run up is permitted on the field of play during play if it could result in a waste of time.

Laws 30 to 39 discuss the various ways a batsman may be dismissed. In addition to these 10 methods, a batsman may retire out. That provision is in Law 2.

The first section of law 42 makes clear that the captains of the two teams have the responsibility for ensuring that play is conducted within the spirit and traditions of the game as well as within the Laws.

This leads on to a statement that the umpires are the sole judges of fair and unfair play. It contains an override of the laws of cricket: The state of the ball has a big effect on how difficult a delivery is for a batsman.

A cricket ball is not symmetrical. It is in two parts stitched together to form a seam. How a ball swings, seams, and spins depends in part on how much air resistance there is to different parts of the ball, and to what degree the ball has deteriorated.

A cricket team will normally seek to shine one side of the ball and rough up the other side. The resultant variation in air resistance on the two halves of the ball can then have a marked effect.

Ball tampering has always been a feature of the sport. Players will use objects to rough up one side of the ball, and use resins and Brylcreem to shine the other.

This sort of ball tampering is against the spirit of the game and has always been against the rules.

Though, as it can be difficult to spot, it has always gone on with limited sanction. The television age has meant that from the s onwards most international games have been televised.

Slow motion replays have highlighted a number of incidents of ball tampering: The third section of law 42 contains the rules and sanctions against ball tampering and requires the umpires to make frequent and irregular inspections of the ball to counter it.

It also contains punitive measures against fielders who do tamper with the ball. Some acts that may alter the ball are permitted. A fielder may polish the ball as long as no artificial substance is used, remove mud from the ball under the supervision of the umpire and dry a wet ball on a towel.

But no-one may rub the ball on the ground for any reason, interfere with any of the seams or the surface of the ball, use any implement, or take any other action whatsoever which is likely to alter the condition of the ball.

If a fielder illegally changes the condition of the ball, the umpires replace the ball with another one with similar wear to the old ball before the ball tampering.

The umpires also award five runs to the batting team and report the incident to the relevant authorities that the fielder is responsible to. These authorities are then expected to take further disciplinary action against the player as appropriate.

If there is a further incidence of ball tampering in the innings, the same procedure is followed, but the bowler of the immediately preceding ball is banned from bowling further in that innings too.

If a member of the fielding side deliberately distracts or attempts to distract the batsman on strike while he is preparing to receive or receiving a delivery, the umpire immediately declares the ball to be dead.

The umpire also informs the fielding captain of the incident. The batsman may not be dismissed from the delivery, which must be repeated.

If this happens again in the innings the same procedure is followed, but the batting team is awarded five penalty runs too. It is also unfair for a member of the fielding side to deliberately attempt to distract or obstruct either batsman after the striker has received the ball by word or action.

If this happens a procedure similar to the procedure for the first instance of ball tampering occurs, although the batting side also scores any runs that they have scored before the attempted or actual distraction or obstruction.

The bowling of fast short pitched balls and of high full pitched balls is dangerous and is also considered unfair.

Where the umpire considers that there are regular fast short pitched balls, that by their length, height and direction, coupled with the relative skill of the batsman is dangerous, the umpire calls no ball and cautions the bowler.

If this happens a third time in an innings, the bowler is barred from bowling again in that innings, and is reported to the authorities he is responsible to for further disciplinary action.

Where a delivery, after pitching passes over the head of the striker, the umpire calls no ball and includes it in his consideration of whether fast short pitched bowling is unfair, even though such a delivery is not dangerous.

High full pitched balls that pass or would have passed on the full above waist height of the striker are deemed dangerous unfair, except for slow deliveries, where the rule is above shoulder height.

The same sanctions apply to high full pitched balls as apply to fast short pitched balls. Such deliveries, which are called beamers , can be incredibly dangerous.

Usually they only occur by mistake, when a ball slips in the bowler's hand at the point of delivery and bowlers usually immediately apologise to the batsman for their mistake.

If they are bowled deliberately, no ball is immediately called, the bowler is removed and is reported to the authority to which he is responsible for further disciplinary action.

Time wasting can be used as a deliberate tactic to win a game. If rain is forecast, a side that is in a losing position can play slow, with the hope that rain will save them and turn the result into a draw rather than a defeat.

Time wasting can also be used tactically elsewhere in the game: Law 42 includes rules to counter unfair time wasting. If the fielding side wastes time, or progresses an over unnecessarily slowly, it is first warned by the umpire.

Any further occurrence, there is a further sanction.

Author: Gubar

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